A descriptive- co relational method was used in this study in order to find out what styles of classroom management were used by the faculty members of La Salle University (LSU). This study also would like to find out whether a significant relationship exists between the classroom management styles utilize by the college instructors and their teaching performance. There were two groups or respondents involved in this study, the first group was composed of seventy- eight ( 78) college instructors both permanent and probationary who taught during the first semester SY 007- 2008. The seventy- eight faculty members came from the six colleges of LSU. It was found out that there was no significant relationship exists between the classroom management style and the teaching of he faculty of LSU.
The art of teaching and educating children and the young people is very exciting because of its difficult and constant challenges that provide a venue for personal growth. In fact, teaching has never been challenging than it is today. Such challenge can be attributed to the fact that students entering schools or colleges come with such widely diverse backgrounds, capabilities and interest' that meeting their needs and finding appropriate learning activities require a great deal of care and skills.
Due to these great diversities, classrooms therefore can be organized or disorganized. Students may be motivated or unmotivated to learn and do their share of the teaching and the learning process. Moreover, they may be proactive and engage in classroom activities or sometimes are only reactive and passive. With this classroom reality, teachers must be able to manage the students. For no matter how efficient a teacher may be, but if he/she is unable to control the students in his/her classroom, only very minimal learning may take place. Classroom 280management is thus an essential and integral aspect of teaching and learning and techniques in managing, motivating and regulating students can be acquired by teachers.
One of the first and most basic tasks of teachers is to develop smooth running school communities where learners are highly involved in worthwhile activities that support their learning. Hence, establishing an effective classroom management system is a first priority. In fact, teachers who have developed such a system have taught a great deal about essential features of their classroom and how they worked to establish them.
One's classroom management system will of course affect managerial and disciplinary approaches or styles. There are many approaches or styles but which ever maybe adopted must be comfortable to the users and coincides with the teacher's personal and professional characteristics. Such classroom management styles must aid the teacher not only in terms of student's discipline and in promoting meaningful student's learning but must as well work towards achieving an effective teaching performance.
Review of Related Literature
Various literatures and studies that are considered in this research deal with the different styles of classroom management or approaches, on the level of teacher's teaching performance and as well as the relationship between classroom management styles of teachers and their teaching performance. These materials are especially reviewed in this study and which are mostly written by foreign authors.
As stressed by Allan Ornstein (1994) in his book "Strategies for Effective Teaching", in order to teach, impart knowledge to learners and eventually motivate them to attain an exemplary academic achievement, a teacher must be able to manage his/her students. For no matter how much potentials one has as an educator, if he/she is unable to control the students in the classroom, little learning will surely take place.
Classroom Management Styles
Effective classroom management is the major concern and pre-requisite to successful classroom teaching. At the same time, it is also considered as the most fundamental and difficult task the teacher performs (Cooper, 2003). Classroom management is one aspect of teaching that is very scary on the part of many educators. In fact, in the words of Winning (1998), entering a classroom full of many faces is a pretty scary experience. Once the bell rings, the teacher may start to panic no matter how prepared he/she is. However, as soon as one builds an effective classroom environment and acquires a style in classroom management that is functional or that really works, a teacher begins to feel a bit comfortable.
According to Baumrind (1971), classroom managements may be:
On his part, Ornstein (1990), enumerated seven classroom management styles or approaches which he believes are very much useful in motivating the students develop their academic self-regulation. Such classroom management styles are all based on a mixture of psychology, classroom experiences and common sense. These are:
Level of the Faculty's Teaching Performance
It has been said before and in all probability that the single most significant factor in a student's learning is the teacher. This claim is attested by Ginnot (1972) who declared that the decisive element in the classroom is the teacher. This is so since the teacher's personal approach is primarily the factor that creates the climate and his or her daily mood makes the weather. A teacher therefore, possesses a tremendous power to make a student's lifemiserable or joyous.Furthermore, a teacher can be a tool oftorture oraninstrument of inspiration; can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal or can even humanize or dehumanize a learner, concluded Ginott.
What Ginott said only showed how delicate or crucial is the role of a teacher in the classroom and in the student's life as a whole. This then implies that there is really a great imperative on the part of the teacher to work towards achieving a high level of teaching performance. For once a teacher attains a superior or outstanding performance, he or she may be in perfect state to cope up with the demands made on him or her (Dean, 2002). On the contrary, when a teacher performs inadequately, he or she does not only fail to achieve his/her own performance standards but may also affect the performance of others with whom he or she comes in contact. Hence, teacher's underperformance may have a negative impact upon the: (1). School's reputation and standing in the community, (2) Attainment and achievement of the students, (3) Performance of other teachers and of the support staff and (4). Leadership and management of the school (Wragg et.al. 2000).
Relationship between Classroom Management Styles and Faculty's Teaching Performance
Good classroom management is not an isolated component of an effective teaching performance. In its totality, effective teaching performance is a blend of appropriate teaching methodologies, classroom management style or approaches and practices that together set the environment for quality teaching-learning that leaves a positive impact on students' achievement (www.doc.in.gov/sir/docs/Secondary_Calssroom-Management.pdf.)
In choosing the most appropriate classroom management style, a teacher must see to it that such style must aid him/her in getting the tasks of teaching, marking, and assessment done excellently. Fiddler and Atton (1999) pointed out that teachers must perform satisfactorily in order to become effective in carrying out their tasks especially in teaching. This implies that a teacher should not be only concerned with his or her style in classroom management. Moreover, he/she must also be fully conscious of his/her performance in the classroom.
This study is rooted on some studies made on classroom management styles, on teacher's level of teaching performance and on the relationship between classroom management styles and teaching performance. These are also the variables that are identified and are dealt with in this study.
The first identified variable is the classroom management styles of the college faculty. The most commonly used styles in classroom management are the authoritarian, authoritative, permissive/laissez faire and the indifferent style. According to Cooper (2003), the classroom management process is purposive, that is, the teacher uses various managerial styles or approaches to achieve a well-defined, clearly identified purpose – the establishment and maintenance of those classroom conditions the teacher feels will facilitate effective and efficient instruction with students. Furthermore, he points to other approaches or management styles that might be useful in the classroom like:
The second variable identified is the faculty's level of teaching performance. As defined by Armstrong (2000), teaching performance is a record of a teacher's accomplishment. It is the outcome of work (teaching work) that provides the strongest linkage to the strategic goals of the organization, customers/students' satisfaction and economic contributions. Teaching performance needs to be measured or assessed since all evidences produced can be used to shape and improve the quality of teaching and to promote excellence in education.
The variables identified are presented in Figure I that follows:
Figure 1 The Schematic Diagram of the Study
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to find out the styles of classroom management the faculty members of La Salle University use. The study is designed to conduct an assessment on the college instructors' level of performance and to discover whether the choice of classroom management style is significantly related to teaching performance. Specifically, this research attempts to shed light to the following questions:
Importance/Significance of the Study
The primary importance of the study lies in knowing what classroom management styles are utilized by the faculty members of La Salle University when imparting knowledge to their students in the classroom.Through this research, a discoverymay be made whether there is a relationship between the choice of classroom management style and teaching performance. Moreover, this study would be also of great help in finding out whether the use of classroom management styles would serve as a medium in determining the level of teachers' performance.
Specifically, the results of the study would be important to the following:
This section gives a brief account as to the research design of the study, the respondents, sampling technique, research instruments, data collecting techniques and the statistical treatment used.
This research work used the descriptive method since it principally described the classroom management styles adopted by the college instructors in La Salle University. At the same time, the study looked into the level of the faculty's level of teaching performance.
Furthermore, this work was also co-relational because it sought to find out whether a significant relationship exists between the classroom management styles utilized by the college instructors and their teaching performance.
Two groups of respondents were used in this study. The first group was composed of seventy-eight college instructors both permanent and probationary who taught during the 1st semester 2007-2008. The seventy-eight faculty members came from the six Colleges namely: Colleges of Arts and Sciences, Accountancy, Business and Economics, Computer Studies, Education, and Nursing.
A complete list of the college faculty-respondents included in this study could be viewed in Appendix A.
289The second group of respondents was composed of college students who came from two of the classes of the seventy-eight faculty-respondents.
This research involved seventy-eight faculty members who came from the six colleges. Moreover, the study also included student-respondents who attended the classes of the instructor – respondents.
In order to get the number of classes from where the student-respondents should come from, the Sloven's formula was used. After getting the sample size, the researcher proceeded to use the random sampling to get the actual number of classes that would provide this researcher with the number of student-respondents who evaluated the teaching performance of the instructors.
Two kinds of research tools were used in this study. The first was a standard questionnaire employed to determine the classroom management styles of the faculty. The other tool used was the students' faculty evaluation instrument utilized in assessing the college faculty's level of performance.
The tool used in identifying the faculty's classroom management style or approach contained twelve questions and the techniques in scoring were:
|Strongly Agree -||5|
|Strongly Disagree -||1|
To identify the styles of classroom management styles used and preferred by the non-education graduate instructors, the responses to the different questions were added.
The Students' Faculty Evaluation instrument on the other hand was made up of five areas: (1) Classroom Management,(2) Communication Skill (3) Facilitating Students' Learning, (4). Evaluation, (5) Instructor-Student Relationship.
A five-point scale was used to determine the level of teaching performance of the respondents. The weighted mode below was applied in scoring the responses to the various indicators or items.
The scores were then tallied and divided by the number of items in each area. To arrive at the qualitative or descriptive interpretation of the faculty's level of performance, the means of their weighted scores were rated as follows:
|4.7 – 5.00||Outstanding|
|4.1 – 4.6||Very Satisfactory|
|3.4 – 4.0||Satisfactory|
|2.8 - 3.3||Fair|
|1.0 - 2.7||Poor|
Data Collection Technique
To gather the data needed, the questionnaires were distributed or administered to the intended college instructor and student-respondents.
To validate and counter-check the responses of the respondents, casual interviews and observations were made and carried out.
Statistical techniques were used in this study in order to arrive at the correct interpretation of the data. One of the techniques was the frequency and percentage distribution which was computed to establish the classroom management profile of the faculty. The weighted mean was also computed to determine the level of teaching performance of the respondents before the results were verbally interpreted.
This section presents the results of the findings of as to classroom management styles or approaches used by the college faculty as well as the level of their teaching performance as measured and rated by the students in two of subjects or classes handled by them.
It also answers the three problems, the results of which were tested using the appropriate statistical treatments and correspondingly interpreted in order to reveal the faculty's classroom management styles and level of teaching performance.
Classroom management styles of the college faculty
Since classroom management is an integral part of teaching, it must therefore be proactive and be carefully approached in order to accomplish task and activities. Such teaching tasks and activities can be best accomplished and carried out through the proper selection of the classroom management style.
Table 1 below shows the classroom management styles used by the college-faculty respondents.
Table 1 Classroom Management Styles of College Faculty
|Classroom Management Style||No. of Respondents||Percentage|
|3. Authoritarian/Laissez Faire||1||1.3|
|5. Authoritarian/Laissez Faire||1||1.3|
Table 1 shows that ninety-one percent or seventy-one of the respondents used authoritative style of classroom management. While four (5.1%) wereboth authoritarianand authoritative. One respondent (13%) was authoritarian and at the same time utilized as well the laissez faire approach. Another respondent applied authoritative and laissez faire styles. Still another faculty managed his /her classes by using authoritarian, authoritative and laissez faire classroom room management styles.
It is very clear that none among the respondents purely used authoritarian style in the classroom instead preferred more authoritative style of management. Those who were authoritarian in a way used it in combination with other styles. This finding could be explained by the fact that college students are more mature compared with high school or grade school pupils who because of immaturity still need to be guided. In a study made by Naungayan (2006), he mentioned that the problem of discipline is persistent in every elementary/secondary classroom because many students/pupils lack inner control and are willing to defer to teacher authority. Thus, there is a necessity to tighten one's control on the learners' classroom behavior.
Table 1 also shows that authoritative style was very popularly used by the majority of the respondents. This may be attributed to the contention that the most effective application of authority in the classroom is through the use of authoritative style (Charles, 1992). He further added that a teacher who adheres to this style impose authority wisely and respect students. Besides, authoritative style is also considered the best form of classroom management for it encourages an independent, warm and nurturing classroom environment. In the hands of an effective teacher, authoritative style of classroom management can produce socially competent and responsible students (Baumrind, 1971).
An educator who takes teaching seriously inevitably asks one very important question: How can I become a more effective teacher, one who can perform well? This question implies that no matter how good he/she is, one may still perform much, much better (Buskist, et. al, 2002). With appropriate teaching methodologies and proper classroom management practices, the faculty's level of teaching performance thus increases.
Table 2 presents the faculty's level of performance based on the student-respondents evaluation.
Table 2 Level of Teaching Performance
|Level of performance||No. of Respondents||Percentage|
294Table 2 shows that among the faculty members, sixty-five (83.3%) of them were rated Very Satisfactory by the students. Only nine percent were Outstanding while the remaining six were Satisfactory. Those instructors who got a rating of very satisfactory and satisfactory from the student - respondents came mostly from the Colleges of Arts and Sciences, Accounting, Business and Economics, Engineering, Computer Studies and Nursing. On the other hand, those who were outstanding were the faculty of the College of Education. This finding would lead to believe that teachers who graduated from a teacher's college performed outstandingly against other faculty coming from other colleges. (English.moe.gov.teo/public/attachment/692014363271. pdf).
Relationship between the teachers' classroom management styles and teaching performance.
As mentioned by Buskist (2002), appropriate teaching methodologies and proper classroom management practices, may influence the level of the faculty's teaching performance. Such statement may imply that there is a relationship between the classroom management style of the faculty and their teaching performance
Table 3 below shows the relationship between classroom management style and teaching performance of the faculty.
Table 3 Relationship between Classroom Management Style and Teaching Performance
|% w/in Classroom
|% w/in Perfromance||No. of Respondents||% w/in Classroom
|% w/i nPerfromance||No.Of respondents||% w/in Classroom
|% w/in Perfromance||No. of Respondents||% w/in Classroom
|% w/i nPerfromance|
|Classroom Management Styles|
|Authoritarian/ Laissez faire||0||0||0||1||100||1.5||0||0||0||1||100||1.3|
|Authoritarian/Authoritative/ Laissez faire||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||100||16.7||1||100||1.3|
|Authoritative/ Laissez faire||0||0||0||1||100||1.5||0||0||0||1||100||1.3|
The data found in Table 3 demonstrates that the seven (9.9%) college instructors rated Outstanding, fifty-nine (83.1%) with Very Satisfactory performance and seven percent of the respondents who got a Satisfactory rating were all authoritative in managing their students in the classroom. On the other hand there were four whose performance was Very Satisfactory were authoritarian and at the same time authoritative in the classroom. One instructor with a Very Satisfactory performance practiced the use of authoritarian and laissez faire classroom management approaches. Still another faculty with a Very Satisfactory rating used the three styles such as authoritarian, authoritative and laissez faire. The remaining respondent with a rating of Satisfactory believed in implementing authoritative and laissez faire styles in classroom management.
Summary of Findings
The following are the findings: (1) Majority or seventy-one of the respondents (91%) practiced authoritative classroom management. None among the seventy – eight college faculty was authoritarian. (2) As to level of teaching performance, most of the respondents (90.8%) were rated Very Satisfactory. Only seven of them were Outstanding. No faculty fairly and poorly performed (3). There was no significant relationship between the faculty's classroom management style and their teaching performance.
Among the different styles or approaches in classroom management, authoritative was commonly used by the LSU faculty. Hence, it is the style that the faculty find most effective in the classroom environment in college where students no longer need rigid discipline.
Majority of the college faculty were performing Very Satisfactorily. None was underperforming fairy or poorly. Hence, LSU faculty have a high teaching performance, devoting more time to academic activities and focus less on discipline as pre-requisite (Gibson and Dimbo, 1984).
There was no significant relationship between classroom management style and teaching performance. Therefore, one's style of classroom management would not alter or change his/her level of teaching performance. Regardless as to whether a faculty is authoritative, it is likely that he/she may acquire an outstanding, very satisfactory or satisfactory level of teaching performance.
Since majority of the LSU faculty are mostly authoritative, administrators must encourage them to apply other styles of classroom management or introduce other approaches. This can be best carried out through in-service training or seminar on classroom management. Since no significant relationship between classroom management styles and teaching performance was found due to insufficient number of respondents, a study of the same kind should be conducted. This time it must not only include college faculty but all teachers from the Integrated school to successfully establish the significant relationship between classroom management styles and teaching performance.
Armstrong. 2000 as quoted by Jones, Jeff, Mazda Jenkins and Sue Ford. 2006
2006________(n.d.)Developing Effective Teacher Performance. California: Sage Publications. Inc.;
Ashton. 1985. "Teaching Efficacy and Academic Performance" . http://www.the/freelibrary.com/Teaching+efficacy+and+academic+performance_a0142636386. retrieved March 25, 2002.
Buskist, William. et.al 2002. "Evaluating Your Teaching Performance"
_______(n.d.) Classroom Management. Guide for Principals to Support Teacher. www.doc.in.gov/sir/docs. Retrieved February 16, 2008
2008Fiddler and Atton. 1999. as quoted by Jones, Jeff, Mazda Jenkins and Sue Ford. 2006 Developing Effective Teacher Performance. California: Sage Publications. Inc.;
Gibson and Dembo. 1984. . "Teaching Efficacy and Academic Performance"http://www.the/freelibrary.com/Teaching+efficacy+and+academic+performance_a0142636386. retrieved March 25, 2002.
Ginott. 1998. as quoted by Jones, Jeff, Mazda Jenkins and Sue Ford. 2006 Developing Effective Teacher Performance. California: Sage Publications. Inc.;
Naungaya, Emilio. 2000. "Effective Approach to Classroom Management and Discipline" . The Modern teacher. Sept. 2000;
Orstein, Allan. 1990. Strategies for Effective Teaching. Harper Collins Publishers Inc.
________(n.d.) Secondary Classroom Management. www.doc.in.gov/sir/docs/Secondary_Classroom_Management.pdf. Retrieved February 16, 2008
________(n.d.)Teachers Qualification. english.moe.gov.teo/public. Retrieved February 16, 2008
Woolfolk and Hoy. 1990. . "Teaching Efficacy and Academic Performance"http://www.the/freelibrary.com/Teaching+efficacy+and+academic+performance_a0142636386. retrieved March 25, 2002.